SWAMI VIVEKANAND SPEAKS
Knowledge is to find unity in the midst of diversity to establish unity among things, which appear to us to be different from one another. That particular relation by which, man finds this sameness is called Law. This is what is known as Natural Law.
I have said before that our education, intelligence and thoughts are all spiritual; all find expression in religion. In the West, their manifestation is in the external-in the physical and social planes. Thinkers in ancient India gradually came to understand that idea of separateness was erroneous, that there was a connection among all those distinct objects-there was a unity which pervaded the whole universe-trees, shrubs, animals, men, Devas, even God Himself; the Advaitin reaching the climax in this line of thought declared all to be but the manifestations of the One. In reality, the metaphyical and the physical universe are one, and the name of this One is Brahman; and the perception of separateness is an error-they called it Maya Avidya, or nescience. This is the end of knowledge.
If this matter is not comprehended at the present day by anyone outside India-for India we leave out of consideration-how is one to be regarded as a Pandit? However, most to the erudite men in the West are coming to understand this, in their own way-through physical science. But how that one has become the many-neither do we understand, nor do they. We too, have offered the solution of this question by saying that it is beyond our understanding, which is limited. They, too, have done the same. But the variations that the one has undergone, the different sorts of species and individuality, it is assuming-that can be understood, and the enquiry into this is called Science.
So almost all are now evolutionists in the West. As small animals through gradual steps change into bigger ones, and big animals sometimes deteriorate and become smaller and weaker, and in course of time die out-so also, man is not born into a civilized state all on a sudden; in these days an assertion to the contrary is no longer believed in by anybody among the thoughtful in the West, especially because of the evidence that their ancestors were in a savage state only a few centuries ago, and from that state such a great transformation has taken place in so short a time. So they say that all men must have gradually evolved, and are evolving from the uncivilized state.
Primitive men used to manage their work with implements of wood and stone; they wore skins and leaves, and lived in mountain caves or in huts thatched with leaves made somewhat after the fashion of bird's nest, and thus somehow passed their days. Evidence in proof of this is being obtained in all countries by excavating the earth, and also in some few places, men at that same primitive stage are still living. Gradually men learnt to use metal-soft metals such as tin and copper-and found out how to make tools and weapons by fusing them.
The ancient Greeks, the Babylonians, and the Egyptians did not know the use of iron for a long time-even when they became comparatively civilized and wrote books and used gold and silver. At that time, the Mexicans, the Peruvians, the Mayas, and other races among the aborigines of the New World were comparatively civilized and used to build large temples; the use of gold and silver was quite common amongst them (in fact the greed for their gold and silver led the Sapniards to destroy them). But they managed to make all these things, working very hard with flint implements.
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